This chapter is open to the public, including a short summary from what can be expected to in this Neuro e-module.
An e-module for advanced MR users like radiographers, radiologists other radiology personnel, medical imaging professionals, neurologists, psychiatrists, neurosurgeons, clinical physicists, researchers, technical staff/ engineers, veterinary and experimental animal staff. Just for those who like to go deeper in MR neuro imaging techniques and visualisation. Certification: CPD NOW (UK)
Advanced neuro RF sequences are discussed and you should be able to:
. understand the indication and techniques of the RF sequences.
. describe various applications for the use of the Neuro RF sequences.
With this chapter a very basic knowledge and awareness about the integration and cross-fertilisation between AI, machine-learning, statistics, neuroscience and other fields is introduced.
Acceleration is needed in MR to speed up and shorten the MRI exams but also more detail and higher resolution is wanted, specifically in the brain, which results too in more data (3D). So the latest main acceleration methods are discussed.
Advanced Diffusion techniques are discussed which can be used with the latest implemented acceleration techniques. The fMRI technique discussed, is one of the two main methods for Metabolic Imaging and new developments are included.
Perfusion methods: after having explained the basics in the RF sequence e-module, the different Perfusion methods (including the rather advanced, such as vascular permeability) are more deeply discussed and applications are provided and discussed. Parameter settings such as postprocessing are explained so you should be able to discuss the correct perfusion method needed for a certain indication.
CE (Contrast Enhanced) MRA methods are discussed as the NEMRA (Non-Contrast-Enhanced MRA. This chapter summarizes the drives for using NEMRA and CE MRA. The primary arterial and venous applications, advantages, and limitations of established and emerging NCE‐MRA as CE MRA techniques are discussed.
In this chapter we discuss MRN which can show current nerve pathology. RF sequences and clinical applications are discussed. Examples of nerve compressions are those affecting the sciatic nerve (e.g. piriformis syndrome), the brachial plexus nerves (e.g. thoracic outlet syndrome), the pudendal nerve, or almost any nerve in the body. The brain and spinal cord neural tracts can be followed using DTI (tractography). MRN can easily been done on 1.5- and 3T but not satisfactorily on a lower field strength which can be stressful for claustrophobic patients. MRN has been used for > than fifteen years but still several insurance companies do not reimburse the cost of it; on other sites it is a standard insurance item and commonly reimbursed. The anatomy of the cranial nerves and its origins are described in this chapter.
Although the basic of MRSI are already explained in the RF sequence e-module, still several Neuro methods and items applied in Proton Spectroscopy are added. Some CEST methods are discussed more in depth than others like APT. Sodium Imaging can give some direct and quantitative biochemical information on the tissue viability, study of metabolism, cell integrity and function, and therefore not only help the diagnosis but also the prognosis of diseases and treatment results. Techniques and applications of all 3 methods are discussed.
This chapter gives an overview and explains different existing Hybrid Imaging and Fusion possibilities such as PET and fMRI, bringing us to the world from Metabolic Imaging.
Advantages and disadvantages (sometimes called drawbacks) will be discussed.