The Contrast Enhanced MRA's are discussed, the different methods and parameter fine-tuning.
Several black blood methods will be discussed like B(D)T(F)SE, the (i)MSDE T(F)SE-ADE RF sequence, DWI used for black blood imaging, SWI (Susceptibility Weighted Imaging) and QSM (Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping).
The bSSFP, the 3D bSSFP gated with IR prep pulses, the cardiac gated 3D T(F)SE based RF sequences with subtraction, the ASL will be discussed and each can be used as NCE (Non Enhanced) MRA or/and MRV RF sequences.
The TOF based and PCA methods are the conventional Non CE ( Contrast-Enhanced) techniques. The TOF MRA related methods show flow related enhancement to identify moving spins. The PCA method shows the blood velocity, also called VENC (Velocity Encoding) and gives a complete suppression of non-moving spins. Those methods are discussed as the parameter settings and applications. Flow Quantification is using basically the PCA method.
With this e-module an impression will be given of the state of the art in MR Angio and MR Venography, examining the vessels. The e-module is vendor-independent using the terminology and cases mainly from Siemens, GE, Philips, Canon and Hitachi and could be used as a subject for MRI education on colleges etc. Basic knowledge of MRI is recommended.
In this chapter about MR in Sports Medicine in MSK the most typical injuries, classifications of muscle injuries, specific RF sequences, clincial applications, MRS and IVIM and imaging modalities are compared. The PDF file of this chapter has been available for a while for free but this chapter will be updated on a regular base.
This chapter gives an overview and explains different existing Hybrid Imaging and Fusion possibilities such as PET and fMRI, bringing us to the world from Metabolic Imaging. Advantages and disadvantages (sometimes called drawbacks) will be discussed.
Although the basic of MRSI are already explained in the RF sequence e-module, still several Neuro methods and items applied in Proton Spectroscopy are added. Some CEST methods are discussed more in depth than others like APT. Sodium Imaging can give some direct and quantitative biochemical information on the tissue viability, study of metabolism, cell integrity and function, and therefore not only help the diagnosis but also the prognosis of diseases and treatment results. Techniques and applications of all 3 methods are discussed.
In this chapter we discuss MRN which can show current nerve pathology. RF sequences and clinical applications are discussed. Examples of nerve compressions are those affecting the sciatic nerve (e.g. piriformis syndrome), the brachial plexus nerves (e.g. thoracic outlet syndrome), the pudendal nerve, or almost any nerve in the body. The brain and spinal cord neural tracts can be followed using DTI (tractography). MRN can easily been done on 1.5- and 3T but not satisfactorily on a lower field strength which can be stressful for claustrophobic patients. MRN has been used for > than fifteen years but still several insurance companies do not reimburse the cost of it; on other sites it is a standard insurance item and commonly reimbursed. The anatomy of the cranial nerves and its origins are described in this chapter.